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Posts Tagged ‘Mikko Hypponen’

A commenter over at the Small Wars Council thought my theory about the possible motive of the Iranian Metasploit hijinks would make for a good movie–but, I assume, not the most credible analysis.  First, typing commands in to msfconsole is a little hard to dramatize on screen. About the closest we’ve come to making the command line sexy was having Trinity from The Matrix run an nmap scan and a fictitious SSH exploit, and Trinity did it wearing a leather outfit (see article and YouTube clip*). The real perpetrator may be doing it unshaven and in a bathrobe. At least, that’s how I do my best work. Secondly, I am, like, so totally serious about my theory of someone more interested in disrupting intelligence agencies than Iran’s nuclear program.  Here’s why:

There are certainly credible reasons why a professional intelligence agency would bang away in Iranian networks with Metasploit. If the Iranians are shutting down key parts of their network (I don’t know how vital the automation bits mentioned in Mikko’s piece are) to do forensics to figure out how the attacker is getting in, maybe blasting “Thunderstruck” is the next best thing to some fancy exploit to ruin centrifuges. Or, perhaps, some group who wants to disrupt Iran’s nuclear program is flooding them with garbage attacks to overwhelm Iranians attempts to analyze their more ‘long-term,’ targeted malware. That analysis takes time and personnel who are in short supply even in the U.S. Think of it, to borrow a phrase from one of my brilliant friends, Federico Rosario, as “a DOS attack on skilled personnel.” Others have mentioned playing “Thunderstruck” as a kind of psychological warfare on trust in terms of Iranian infrastructure.

However, these types of attacks seem every bit as likely to disrupt professional intelligence agencies’ access as help them in some way. I also am unimpressed with the PSYOPS theory, because (1) this has already been accomplished via previous malware and (2) announcing one’s presence contradicts the IC’s modus operandi in terms of being able to discretely collect information and disrupt systems.  That’s why I think there is another motive at work here. The reported worm and Metasploit hijinks may even be two separate actors.

* – Funny enough, that little 1:09 clip dramatizes pretty much every policy maker’s fear of an infrastructure attack on the US

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As I tweeted a day ago, Mikko Hypponen had an interesting blog post in which he discusses an email from a scientist working at the Atomic Energy Organization of Iran.  The details are a little unclear, but the claim is that some mix of a worm, Metasploit, and hacked computers blasting AC/DC at all hours of the night has been disrupting two nuclear facilities within Iran.  The AC/DC bit–“Thunderstruck,” as a matter of fact–has attracted the most attention.

It is hard to get a clear picture of what is going on, because there’s really two separate issues:  this worm and the possible use of Metasploit. Metasploit, of course, is not a virus; it’s an exploitation framework. Download it here if you’re curious. HD Moore, Metasploit’s creator, tweeted:

definitely a confused individual, Metasploit isn’t a worm and doesn’t ship with AC/DC’s Thunderstruck :)” (source)

However, you can indeed load an MP3 with Metasploit.  Moore explained:

you can do it today (msf> load sounds) & copy mp3 (source)

If the e-mail to Mikko Hyponnen is truthful and accurate, this strikes me as the act of an amateur–not a state, much less the US. Moreover, the fact that there is no effort to be covert makes me think this is a grand middle finger to US and other intelligence agencies. It is as if the perpetrator is saying, “You developed malware and cryptographic attacks over the course of years to penetrate computers relevant to the Iranian nuclear program; I did it downloading an app freely available to anyone.” They probably even used a commonly available exploit, too. I can’t see someone burning a 0-day to blast “Thunderstruck” to some Iranian engineers just for, as the kids say, “the lulz.”

If I had to ‘profile’ the perpetrator, I would suggest a lone male with a grudge or grievance with one or more US intelligence agencies (perhaps a past applicant). If there is a political motive, I would suggest someone affiliated with Anonymous or other like-minded group who might think disrupting Iranian networks would mean disrupting any ongoing US intelligence operation. Either way, the objective in my view is disrupting or discrediting US efforts rather than Iran’s nuclear program. That’s pure speculation, but that is the impression I get.

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In Mikko Hypponen’s fantastic TED talk, there were two big takeaways.  First, we must be prepared those times when–not if–hackers will be able to break systems (perhaps even the system) in which we live and work.  This is not simply a matter of low-tech alternatives (although that is not a bad idea) but also making sure our technology is resilient.  Secondly, those on the side of law and order must find those who are about to become cybercriminals, as Hypponen says, “with the skills but without the opportunities” and co-opt them into using their skills for good.

While I could not agree more with these two priorities, I do not share Hypponen’s optimism that they will be addressed.  In terms of resilience, the start of the rebooted Battlestar Galactica in which humanity is annihilated through an enemy exploiting vulnerabilities in complex, hypertechnological military systems seems completely plausible to me.  (The miniseries should be required viewing for RMA kool-aid drinkers.)  In terms of recruiting those on the verge of becoming cybercriminals or, indeed, cyberguerrillas like Anonymous, I see an outcome that is even less hopeful than the Cylons’ onslaught.  We are failing–miserably–at co-opting talent.

There are a lot of reasons for this, but one of the most important requires broaching an uncomfortable subject.  Earlier in the month, Robert Graham of Errata Security made a provocative claim that, while white hat hackers on on the side of the “law,” they are not on the “side of law enforcement” or, as Graham puts it, “order.”  He goes on to explain:

The issue is not “law” but “order”. Police believe their job is not just to enforce the law but also to maintain order. White-hats are disruptive. While they are on the same side of the “law”, they are on opposite sides of “order”.

During the J. Edgar Hoover era, the FBI investigated and wiretapped anybody deemed a troublemaker, from Einstein to Martin Luther King. White-hats aren’t as noble as MLK, but neither are white-hats anarchists who cause disruption for disruption’s sake. White-hats believe that cybersecurity research is like speech: short term disruption for long term benefits to society.

I have personal experience with this. In 2007, I gave a speech at the biggest white-hat conference. It was nothing special, about reverse engineering to find problems in a security product. Two days before the speech, FBI agents showed up at my office and threatened me in order to get me to stop the talk, on (false) grounds of national security. Specifically, the agents threatened to taint my FBI file so that I could never pass a background check, and thus never work for the government again. I respond poorly to threats, so I gave the talk anyway.

I point this out because it so aptly proves my point. I am not on the side of law enforcement, because law enforcement has put me on the other side. One of the requirements (from the above post) to volunteer is to pass a background check — a check that I can no longer pass (in theory). I cannot volunteer to train law enforcement because they perceive me as the enemy.

This is exactly why I am so dire about recruitment. First, there is a distinctly libertarian bent throughout hacker culture suspicious of government and resistent to impingement of freedoms as far flung as free speech and fair use of digital media.  This, as Graham argues, puts those inclined to respect the “law” against “order.”  Secondly, abuses do more to create cybercriminals than curtail them.

This got me thinking about David Kilcullen’s idea of “the accidental guerrilla”–that, in a counterinsurgency, even the slightest misapplication of force or failure to understand the complexities of one’s operating environment (culturally or otherwise) may lead to the exponential creation of insurgents.  Misinterpretation of this idea has caused many to come to the conclusion that less force is always better, but Kilcullen does not suggest this.  Similarly, it is not simply that the U. S. has begun to project force through this crudely defined “cyber” realm but rather that it does so without any understanding of its human terrain.

I am throwing some counterinsurgency buzzwords around too flippantly; thinking about a population-centric cyberwarfare would be a useful lens, but there needs to be a long hard look at past failures in addressing those Americans previously labeled as insurgents–for example, the Civil Rights Movements as Graham so aptly notes.  There also needs to be a look at the “short-term disruptions” that Graham touches on with the context of cyberguerrillas as well as counterinsurgency practice at large.

I am not purporting any of this to be new or even my own; I am sure folks like John Robb have been connecting these dots for a long time.  However, I am flagging this as an issue that needs more attention.

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